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Reporting Research and Evaluating Studies

Key concepts and tools to help authors improve the quality of their manuscripts and readers evaluate existing research.

Instruments and Reporting Guidelines for Authors

Reporting guidelines are tools to identify methodological weaknesses and promote transparency. They are not intended to dictate the design of a study or the conduct of investigators. These guidelines offer recommended frameworks for investigators to consider as they report their research.  
The following reporting guidelines are organized by study type. Many of these initiatives are ongoing processes and periodically updated.

Randomized Controlled Trials

Observational Studies 

Systematic Reviews

Quality Improvement Studies

Diagnostic/Prognostic Studies

Qualitative Research

Find more reporting guidelines

  • EQUATOR network - Access to over 300 reporting guidelines.
  • SIGN Critical Appraisal: Notes and Checklists - Appraisal tools for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, as well as cohort, case-control, diagnostic, and economic studies from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.