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Multimedia Medical Resources

Selected resources for medical images and video content.

Citing Image and Video Sources

Images, illustrations, or video can enhance your papers and presentations. Like written sources, multimedia sources also need to be properly cited. Always indicate, or cite, where you found the image. Citations can be formatted according to the citation style you are using (NLM, Vancover, APA, Chicago, etc).

Using multimedia you did not create requires a citation in all cases. Citations should be accessible in the context of the image's use and should link back to the original image whenever possible. Include a caption below the image and a formal citation in your works cited.

Give attribution to image creators in citations and credit statements to acknowledge authorship. Indicate when using a personal photograph. Citations to images included in image databases should include the following (or as much of it as can be easily determined from the source): 

  • Artist or creator's name
  • Title of image
  • Description of image
  • Institution where held, if known
  • Title of article or book (if applicable)
  • Author of article or book (if applicable)
  • Title and date of magazine (if applicable)
  • Database name (if applicable)
  • Date of access if online or the publication if originally from print material
  • URL (if applicable)

No matter where you get your image or video (Google image search, digital image repository, government website, scan from a book) or how you use it (PowerPoint, in a paper for class, a flyer) you MUST provide a citation for every image you use. This is as simple as adding any of the known information about the work (listed above) to the bottom of the digital image. Provide as much information as possible. For formal papers and presentations provide BOTH a caption and a citation in your bibliography or works cited. For published papers, multimedia rights may require obtaining permission from the creator. Work with the publisher to facilitate this process. 

For example, this image was found using a Google Image Search. The image is hyperlinked back to the original source ( NIH Image Gallery on Flickr) and as much information as is known about the image is included below, along with a sample citation in NLM format. 

Citation: Deerinck T. Scanning electron micrograph of an apoptotic HeLa cell NIH Image Gallery (Flickr): National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research;  [October 1, 2019]. Available from: